The State of Uttar Pradesh has a Long and Interesting history of Mining of Minerals. In the early days Copper, Lead, Iron ore and Placer Gold have been mined on a small scale in parts of Himalayas, Bundelkhand and South-Eastern districts. In addition Vindhyan Sand Stone as building and Mill Stone were also mined in the districts of Agra, Allahabad and Mirzapur.
Prior to 1900, the Copper ores were mined on a small scale in erstwhile Garhwal, however, the development of Modern Technology and decline in the prices also lead to the decline of small scale Mining. Mining activity during 1920 and 1930 further declined due to various reasons. The Geologists have been examining the ground for search of both Industrial and Metallic Mineral deposits which could be developed in relation to present day Technology and Economics. In the post independence period, this effort was considerably intensified with the creation of Directorate of Geology& Mining in 1955 and the State witnessed spurt in the mining activity with the development and setting up of Cement factory in Churk. The Silica Sand deposits near Shankargarh in Allahabad were mined to meet the increasing demand of the Glass and Foundry Industries. The activities in the traditional building stone industry also increased considerably. Through the continuous efforts of the exploration Geologists, mineral deposits like Soapstone, Diaspore, Pyrophyllite, Bauxite, Rock Phosphate,high grade limestone and Cement grade Limestone, Dolomite, Coal etc. could be evaluated and a vast potential for their expansion established .